Abkhaz Historical Dates

The end of the XII century. BC. e. - Written record "Abeshla" - the ancestors of the Abkhaz.

VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. - The beginning of the Iron Age in Abkhazia.

VII -VI centuries. BC. e. - Scythians in Abkhazia.

VI-I centuries. BC. e. - Early antique era in Abkhazia.

VI. BC. e. - Base Gienosa, Dioskuriady and Esherskogo settlement.
 The second half of the II century n.e.- Pitiuanta base.

66-65 years. BC. e. - Stay Pontic King Mithridates VI Eupator in Dioskuriade.

I-VII centuries. n. e. - Late and early Byzantine era in Abkhazia.

I c. n. e. - The first mention of Apsils by Pliny second (died in 79 AD. E. During the eruption of Vesuvius).

I c. n. e. - According to Church tradition preaching activity and Simon the Zealot  and Andrew Pervozvanny in Abkhazia.

137 year  - inspection visit of the Roman legate Flavius Arrian to Sebastopolis.

252  and 258  years – Gots attacked Pitiunt.

325 year  - participation of Pitsunda Bishop Stratofil in first Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.

523 year  - approval of Christianity in Lasik.

542 year  - withdrawal by the Byzantine garrisons of Sebastopolis and Pitiunt.

30-40 years. VI. - Approval in Apsilia of Christianity as the official religion.

not later than 548 - approval in Abasgia of Christianity as the official religion.

550 –Abasg battle with the Byzantines and Apsils, confrontation with the Byzantines at the walls Ttsibila (Caban). The Byzantines’ victory and taking Trakhey fortress by them.

555-556 years. - Misimian uprising against the Byzantines.

737-738 years. – Arab invasion in Abkhazia and a battle at the walls of Anakopiya. Abasg’s  victory.

Not later than 786 of - establishment of an independent feudal Abkhazian Kingdom.

741-786 years. - The reign of Prince Leon I Abasg.

786-806 years. - Board the first Abkhaz king of the Leon II.

806-825 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King Theodosius II.

825-861 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King Dmitry II.

861-868 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King George I. 

888-893 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King Bagrat I.

893-922 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King Constantine III.

922-957 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King George  II.

957-967 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King  Leon III.

Not later than 967 -  the construction by Leone III of Mokva Cathedral.

967-975 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King Dmitry III
975-978 years. - The reign of Abkhaz King Theodosius III the Blind .

978-1014 . - Board the first "King of the Abkhaz and Kartlis" Bagrat III of the genus Bagratuni (Bagrat II of the royal dynasty of the Abkhaz Leonids).

999 – construction of Bedia Cathedral.

1008 - the middle of XIII century. - "Kingdom of Abkhaz and Kartlis."

1066 - a message about the appearance of Halley's comet in the inscription Lykhny temple.

1122 - release of Tiflis from the Seljuk Turks and the transfer to the capital of the kingdom, "the Abkhaz and Kartlis."

1247 - the beginning of the collapse of the "kingdom of the Abkhaz and Kartlis."

1280 - the first mention of the presence of the Genoese in Abkhazia.

1330 - establishment of the first Catholic community in Sevastopolise.

1414 - Abkhazian principality deposition dependence Sabediano.

XIII-XV centuries. - Genoese in Abkhazia.

1621 - the beginning of the Thirty Years War between the Abkhaz and Mingrelians.

1641 –expedition of  Ottoman traveler Evlia Celebi on Abkhazia

1680 – capture by Prince Marshania of Tsabal and Dahl.

1723 - construction of the Turkish fortress of Anaklia in the estuary. Ingur.

1724 - construction by Turkish fortress of Sukhum-Kale.

1771 - the revolt of the Abkhazians and the expulsion of the Turkish garrison of Sukhum-Kale.

80th. XVIII century. - May 2, 1808 - the reign of the sovereign prince of Abkhazia Keleshbei Chachba (Shervashidze).

1802 – hiks of Keleshbei Chachba to Mingrelia and Imereti.

December 1803 - Mingrelian principality accession to the Russian Empire.

July 1805 - Samurzakanian entry under Russian protection.

May 2, 1808 - conspiracy and murder of Keleshbei Chachba.

May 2 - 1810, July 10, 1808 - board the legitimate heir to the throne of Aslanbeya Chachba.

August 12, 1808 - "pleading points" George (Seferbeya) Shervashidze Alexander I, about acceptance of Abkhazia under Russian protection, aimed from Samegrelo.

February 17, 1810 - Diploma of Alexander I about acceptance of Abkhaziya under Russian protection.

July 10, 1810 - landing Russian military troops and storm the fortress of Sukhum-Kale.

1810 -first wave of resettlement of Abkhaz to Turkey.

February 7 1810-1821 - boardof Seferbeya (George) of Abkhazian kingdom

1821-1823 years. - The rebellion in Abkhazia led Aslanbeya against Seferbeya (George)

1821-1828 years. - A reference Gasanbeya Chachba, Sukhum district governor in Siberia for support Aslanbey.

October 16 - 1821-1822 reign of prince Dmitry (Omarbeya) Seferbeyas son (George).

February 14, 1823 - 1864 June –reign of last sovereign prince of Abkhazia Mikhail (Gashut Bay) Chachba brother of Prince Dmitry.

1824-1827 years. - Popular uprisings in Abkhazia led by Aslanbey against the colonial policy.

Tyun-August 1824 - punitive expedition of General Gorchakov to Abkhazia.

May 21, 1864-The completion of Russian-Caucasian war

July 1830 landing of Russian troops led General Hesse in Sukhum.

August 1830 - storming Russian Fort in Gagra Ubykhs Saji and under the command of Haji Berzek.

1834 - Construction of the fortification of Ilori Russian General Ahlestyshevym.

1837 – Expedition of Baron Rosen to Tsebelda.

1839 – Establishment of the Black Sea coastline.

1840 – transformation of Samurzakanian into a separate police force 

1840 – establishment by Raevsky of "Military Botanical Garden."

December 1840 - January 1841 - a punitive expedition of Colonel Murav'ev to Dahl.

1843 - a punitive expedition led by the ruler of Abkhazia Mikheil Shervashidze to Pskhu.

1851 - Opening of the first school in Abkhazia 

October 1855 - landing of Turkish troops in Sukhum.

October 25, 1855 - battle by the river Ingur.

July 10, 1856 -Russian troops occupy Sukhum

January 1859 - punitive expedition of General Loris-Melikov to Pskhu.

December 1862 - arrival of the delegation from Abkhazia disobedient to England and acceptance of the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston.

May 21, 1864 - completion of Russian-Caucasian war in Krasnaya Polyana. Victory in the war of the Russian Empire.

1864 – eviction of Ubykhs, Abkhaz Sadzs, ahchipsuytsev, aibgovtsev pskhuvtsev to Turkey.

June 1864 - the announcement of the abolition of the Abkhazian principality, renaming in Abkhazia "Sukhum military department."

November 1864 - arrest last sovereign prince of Abkhazia Mikhail Chachba (Shervashidze).

August 17, 1865 - arrival of political exiles Michael Chachba for permanent residence in the city of Voronezh.

April 16, 1866 - death of the last sovereign prince of Abkhazia Mikhail Chachba (Shervashidze) in Voronezh.

July 26, 1866 uprising of Abkhaz in Lykhny against the Russian government.
July 29, 1866 proclamation George Chachba (Shervashidze), the son of Michael, the ruler of Abkhazia.

April-June 1867 - mass resettlement of Abkhazians to Turkey.

1877 - Russian-Turkish war and the uprising in Abkhazia.

1879 – establishment of Marhyaul by Samegrelo.

1883 - Sukhum Military Department renamed to the Sukhum military district.

1892-1913 years. - The Commission for the translation of liturgical books into the Abkhaz language.

1892 - Creation by D. Gulia and K. Machavariani of  Abkhaz alphabet.

1897 - the first All-Russian population census in Abkhazia.

1898 - Opening of the Kodori timber by Rostov millionaire Maximov.

1903 Summer – registration of Sukhum group in Batum Committee of the RSDLP.

1904 - the first celebration of May Day in Abkhazia.

June 23-24 - 1905 - appearance of the battleship "Potemkin" off the coast of Abkhazia.

December 20, 1905 - introduction in Sukhum "Security Regulations".

February 28, 1906 - classified Abkhazia under martial law.

September 20, 1906 - raid militant groups headed by Joseph Stalin on the steamer "Crown Prince George" at Cape Kodori.

April 1917 -  thousands of people gathering in Lykhny.

24-27 May 1917 - the congress of the clergy and elected lay people. Admission on autocephaly of the Abkhaz Church.

October 20, 1917 the establishment of  South-East Union of Cossack Troops, Caucasian Mountaineers and Free Peoples of the Steppes and entering them to Abkhazia.

November 1917 - establishment of highland government.

December 1917 - establishment of peasant armed squads "Kiaraz."

November 8, 1918, in April 1917 - Organization of the first Abkhazian National Council (ANC) - the first Parliament.

February 9, 1918 signing of the Agreement with the National Council of Georgia by delegation of ANS

16-21 February 1918 establishment of Bolshevik power in Sukhum.

April 8-May 17, 1918 - Soviet power in Abkhazia.

April 9, 1918 - establishment of Zakavkazskaya Democratic Federative Republic (ZDFR).

May 11, 1918 proclamation of the independent Union of "Mountain Republic" and the restoration of the Abkhaz statehood.
17-19 June 1918 - invasion of Georgian troops under the command of General Mazniev to Abkhazia.

June 27, 1918 - landing Abkhaz Muhajirs in Kodori.

June-September 1918 - retributive actions (force) of the Georgian troops in Abkhazia.

August 15, 1918 - battle between  Muhajirs and Georgian troops by Mokva convent 

September 1918 negotiations of Abkhazian delegation with General Alexeyev in Ekaterinodare.

March 4, 1921 - establishment of Soviet power in Sukhum.

March 31, 1921 - establishment of independent Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.

May 21, 1921 signing by the  Revolutionary Committee of Georgia  of the Declaration "On the independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia."

31 March - 1922 February 17, 1921 – period of independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.

December 16, 1921- signing of the Union Treaty between Abkhazia and Georgia.

February 17, 1922 - ratification of the Union Treaty on the I Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR.
April 1925, - the adoption of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia at the III Congress of Soviets of Abkhazia.

October 27, 1926 - amendments to the Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR.

1927 - approval of the second Constitution of Abkhazia on the IV Congress of Soviets of Abkhazia.

February 18-26 1931-national gathering of the Abkhazian people in the Gudauta district.

February 19, 1931 Contract SSR - inclusion of Abkhazia in Georgia as an autonomous republic on the  VI Georgian Congress of Soviets.

 December 28, 1936 death of Nestor Lakoba in Tbilisi.

In 1937-1938 - Mass repression in Abkhazia.

May 27, 1939 -Provision of the CPSU (b) and SNK (Council of People Comissars) "On creation of the Resettlement Office in SNK."

1939 - the first compact settlement of Georgians in  Gudauta district 
1940-1944 years. - Active resettlement of the population of West Georgia to Abkhazia.

July 25, 1943 January 2, 1942 - the battle for the Caucasus.

August 27, 1942- German occupation of the Abkhazian village Pskhu.

13 March 1945 - closing Abkhaz schools and conversion of education to the Georgian language.
February 1947  -Letter by Abkhaz scientists  Dzidzaria G., K. Shaqra, B. Shinkuba  to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b).

1953 - Restoration of Abkhaz and Armenian schools in Abkhazia.

1954 - Conversion of the Abkhaz alphabet based on Russian alphabet.

14-25 February 1956 - XX Congress of the CPSU.

1965-1967 years. - Mass actions of the Abkhaz people against the national policy of Georgia.

9 April 1970 - establishment of the State Youth Folk Dance Ensemble "Sharatyn."

 October 10, 1977 - Abkhazian letter "a hundred and thirty» to the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Brezhnev.

November 6, 1978 – Creation of Abkhaz TV 

February 5, 1979 - Opening of  the Abkhazian State University.

June 1, 1978 - Resolution of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers "On further development of the economy and culture of the Abkhaz ASSR".

June 6, 1978 - adoption of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.

June 17, 1988 letter of Abkhazian intelligentsia addressed to the All-Union Party Conference XIX.

December 13, 1988 - I Congress of the National Forum of Abkhazia "Aidgylara."
March 18, 1989 - Abkhaz plebiscite in Lykhny about the revision of the status of Abkhazia.

15-16 July 1989 - Abkhaz-Georgian conflict.

25-26 August 1989 - I Congress of the Assembly of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (AGNK).

August 25, 1990- declaration "On the State Sovereignty of the Abkhaz ASSR" and the resolution "On legal guarantees of protection of the statehood of Abkhazia."

13-14 October 1990 - II AGNK Congress in Nalchik.

December 24, 1990  election V. Ardzinba. as a Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR 

September 22, 1991 - elections to the Supreme Soviet - Parliament of Abkhazia.

1-2 November 1991 - III Congress of AGNK in Sukhum, the creation of the CMPC (Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus) and the adoption of the "Declaration of the Confederate Union of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus".

November 3, 1991 - first assembly of the parliament of the Caucasian in Lykhny.

February 1992 – input of units of the National Guard of Georgia under the command of Captain G. Karkarashvili to Abkhazia.

February 1992 – abolishment by the Military Council of the Constitution of Georgia of 1978 and commissioning of the Constitution of Georgia in 1921

May 5, 1992 - final separation of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia on ethnic grounds.

July 23, 1992 - Resolution of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia on termination of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978 and the restoration of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia in 1925.

June 24, 1992 - "Dagomys agreement" between Georgia and Russia.
august 14, 1992 invasion of Georgia to Abkhazia and the beginning of war 

August 25, 1992 television appearance (performance) of commander of the State Council of Georgia G. Karkarashvili calling destroy the Abkhaz people.

September 3, 1992 - signing in Moscow of the Outcome Document on the settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia.

October 6, 1992 - exemption from Georgian troops Gagra.

7-8 October 1992 - the first World Congress of the Abkhaz-Abaza (Abaza) people in Lykhny.

October 11, 1992 - creation of the Defense Ministry of the Republic of Abkhazia.

December 4, 1992 - adoption by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia, the decision on restoration of the historical names of Abkhazia, Sukhum and Tkuarchal and others.

December 14, 1992 - tragic death of helicopter MI-8 with refugees on board over the village of Lata.

January 5, 1993 - offensive operation of Abkhazian army on Sukhum.

March 16-18, 1993 offensive operation of Abkhazian army on Sukhum.

July 2, 1993 beginning of the offensive operation of Abkhazian army on the left bank of  Gumista front.

July 27, 1993 - The ceasefire in Abkhazia.

September 16, 1993 – offensive operation  of the Abkhaz army.

September 27, 1993 - exemption of Sukhum  from Georgian forces.
September 30, 1993 г.- Abkhazia wins in the war against Georgia.

End of October 1993 the start of negotiations between Georgia and Abkhazia under the auspices of the United Nations in Geneva, the signing of the "Memorandum of Understanding".

April 4, 1994 - signing of the "Declaration on measures for a political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhazian conflict" in Moscow between Georgia and Abkhazia.

May 14, 1994 - signing of the Agreement between Georgia and Abkhazia under the auspices of the UN and with the assistance of Russian ceasefire.

June 26, 1994 - entering the CIS peacekeeping force along the line of confrontation on the river of Ingur.

July 7, 1994 - entering the Russian peacekeeping forces in the Kodori Gorge.

16-17 September 1994 – negotiations  in New Athos between the head of the Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia Vladislav Ardzinba mediated by Russian Defense Minister P. Grachev.

November 26, 1994 - adoption of the Constitution of Abkhazia at the session of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Abkhazia. Election of the President of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba

December 19, 1994 - beginning of the economic blockade of Abkhazia from the Russian Federation.

November 23, 1996 - elections of deputies of the People's Assembly - Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia.

Октябрь 1997- establishment of the Academy of Sciences of Abkhazia.

May 20-25, 1998. an attempt of Georgian armed formation to capture Gali.

October 3, 1999 - elections and referendum; Election of V. Ardzinba as  the President of the Republic of Abkhazia 

October 12, 1999 – Act on State Independence of Abkhazia.

October 3 - 2005 January 12, 2004.- a result of the first alternative elections.
 S. Bagapsh elected as President of the Republic of Abkhazia.

August 26, 2008 -Recognition of independence of the Republic of Abkhazia.

September 3, 2008, recognition of the Republic of Abkhazia by Nicaragua.

September 10, 2009-recognition of the Republic of Abkhazia by Venezuela.

December 15, 2009, recognition of the state of Nauru Republic of Abkhazia.

May 31, 2011, recognition of the island nation of Vanuatu Republic of Abkhazia.

September 26, 2011, election of the President of the Republic of Abkhazia A.Z.Ankvab.

September 25, 2014, election of the President of the Republic of Abkhazia R.D.Hadzhimba.